APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) IN LAND USE/ZONING
The Application of Geographical Information Systems is (GIS) unlimited, is can be used in a lot of field of application. GIS finds its use in Land use/zoning as an analytical and modeling tool. It can be applied to a wide array of problems. This comprises addressing problems related to data base structures, simple and complex analytical models alike.
GIS is also useful in monitoring of an area or conducting a feasibility study of a location for a specific purpose e.g. ascertaining the suitability of a location for the construction of a bridge or dam. Feasibility study of even smaller structures like schools and hospitals is essential and can be easily conducted with the help of GIS. However, areas where variants of a design or alternate plans are required, the use of GIS are supplemented with more specialized equipment to produce better results.
GIS is commonly used in urban planning to assists with land use planning and development zoning maps. The use of GIS in environmental planning is increasingly being sought to address problems of spatial modeling. It has been proved to be highly valuable and useful for such tasks. Apart from that, GIS aids in providing information regarding the environmental suitability of a land and its level and nature of contamination. It can also be used to ascertain the feasibility of an area for waste disposal and treatment. Factors such as chemical, biological, topographical and physical properties of the area should be examined and taken into consideration. Widespread issues like that of wetlands can be easily addressed with the help of GIS and remote sensing technologies.
APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) IN EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
It is generally agreed upon that there are four key stages to emergency management problems.
- Planning & Mitigation
Here are brief definitions for each stage of emergency management:
Planning & Mitigation: Evaluating the potential types of disasters and developing plans for reducing their probability or their impact on life & resources.
Preparedness: Actions undertaken when mitigation efforts have not prevented or are unable to prevent a disaster from taking place.
Response: Activities that occur in the wake of a disaster that are intended to identify and assist victims and stabilize the overall disaster situation.
Recovery: Actions following a disaster that aims to restore human and environmental systems back to normal.
For emergency managers, a GIS can facilitate critical decision-making before a disaster impacts an area. In the early, crucial stages of a disaster or emergency and throughout the disaster process, managers use GIS products because they provide important information, such as described above, quickly and in easy-to-understand formats.
GIS can be use to: storm track and damage prediction maps, remote sensing maps, maps of federally-declared counties in an affected state, basic census demographics about an affected area by county and census block, street locations, and summaries of tele-registered and service center applicants, housing inspection numbers, Helpline calls, disaster unemployment claims, Small Business Administration (SBA) applicants, etc.
APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) IN POPULATION FORECAST
Virtually all planning begins with and hinges upon future population forecasts. In today’s highly variable growth climate, it is more imperative than ever to have current, reliable and scientifically defensible population forecasts. Whether you are planning at the local, regional, state, or national levels, or involved with permitting or resource allocation decision making, you can rely upon our extensive experience with population forecasting
GIS-based models calculate historical growth rates using census and parcel data, and factor in the historic influence of growth drivers such as roads and interchanges, and factor in the historic influence of growth drivers such as roads and interchanges, certain existing commercial uses, existing residential development and surface water. They exclude non-developable lands, including wetlands, conservation areas, inappropriate land use, road rights-of-way, and areas that are “built out”. These projections are typically distributed to the property parcel level, and then summarized by the client’s desired boundary.
With custom tools, methods and experienced staff, GIS can develop small area (property parcel-level) population forecasts efficiently for a city, utility, county, region or even state
GIS in population forecast Provides:
- Current estimates and future projections of population by type, including permanent, seasonal, tourist and net commuter.
- Projections for any time horizon (2040, 2060, etc.) and increment (one year, five years, etc.).
- In addition to the forecast, optional high and low projections.
- GIS database of projected population in the desired increments and build-out population at the property parcel level.
- Ability to control parcels to a target, large area projection
- Outputs in GIS and tabular formats.
- Expert witness services.
- Support for projection updates.
- Optional forecasts of emergency evacuees.
- Projections of water demand (or other resources whose projections are based on population growth).
Application of Geographical Information System in Transportation
Many development projects have serious dependence on transport network. Authentic information on the transport infrastructure is fundamental requirement for many decision making process; therefore information is required to be reliable, updated, relevant, easily accessible and affordable. Better information doesn’t guarantee better decision-making capability but its absence precludes it. This demand for information requires new approaches in which data related to transportation network should be identified, collected, stored, retrieved, managed, analyzed, communicated and presented.
The road transport related data in particular involves activities like traffic counting, sign inventories, accident investigation, recording of construction and maintenance projects and funding, right of way surveys, bridge inventories, pavement condition surveys, geometry design inventories, and other data collection and maintenance activities. These activities are mostly uncoordinated within the organizations and across the organizational boundaries. Because of lack of co-ordination or of narrow concept of data use and application, data collected for one purpose is rarely usable for others. If two users need the same data or very similar data, the data is often collected twice.
However, if the data is integrated properly by using the appropriate referencing system concept it can be put to maximum use for transportation as well as for many other purposes. Considering the complexities in developing, updating and processing of the transport related data and the declining trend in cost of data management and storage facility there is an urgent need to adopt new concepts and technologies for designing and developing the information resource management of transport infrastructure in the country. Therefore, the development in the field of information technology such as GIS Expert System and Database Management Systems are especially relevant to the field to transportation engineering.
ROLE OF GIS
Geographic Information System (GIS) represents a new paradigm for the organization of information and design of information systems, the essential aspect of which is use of the concept of location as the basis for the structuring of information systems. The application of GIS has relevance to transportation due to the essentially spatially distributed nature of transportation related data, and the need for various types of network level analysis, statistical analysis and spatial analysis and manipulation.
Most transportation impacts are spatial. At GIS platform, the transport network database is generally extended by integrating many sets of its attribute and spatial data through its linear referencing system. Moreover, GIS will facilitate integration of all other socio-economic data with transport network database for wide variety of planning functions.